Somalia has been divided into three regions –Somaliland, puntland and south central Somalia-with a history of wide violence. Following the collapse of regime siad Barre (1969-1991) the country descended into conflict with devastating results:in there gross products(GDP)
Now, following a fragile, but positive, transition mid 2012, Somalia has a full federal government in Mogadishu committed to inclusiveness, reconciliation and peace, based on provisional constitution. Many observers hail the transition as a genuine break with the past, and the best opportunity for stability the fragmented country has had in the last two decades.Somalia has a significant number of ethnic and economic minority groups. People of Bantu descent tend to live in farming villages and in the southern part of the country. Individuals of Arab descent and other non-African immigrants tend to reside in the coastal cities, such as Mogadishu. Among Somalis, a primary division exists between the Samaale and the Sab. The Samaale are the majority of the Somali people and consist of four main clan families the Dir, Isaaq, Hawiye, and Daaroodeach which is further divided into sub-clans. The Samaale are primarily of nomadic origin and live throughout Somalia and in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Djibouti. The Sab consist of two clan families, the Digil and Raxanweyn, located primarily in southern Somalia, where they combine farming and herding and are more likely than the Samaale to be sedentary.
During the colonial period of dominance the Somali people were divided between British, Italian, and Ethiopian rule. The political climate of the rest of the world often had a large effect on African colonies, especially Somalia. During World War II the rivalry between the Axis powers and the Allied powers in Europe also had an effect on the social and political climate among the Somali people.
Following Somalia’s independence in 1960 the government supported the idea of Pan-Somalism, which is the belief that Somalia should unite all Somali-inhabited territories. The goal of Somali unification led to a military buildup that eventually resulted in war with Ethiopia and fighting in northern Kenya. The battle for Somali regions led to a shift in the political ideology and interactions with other nations. Somalia, which prior to 1963, had been allied with Western nations shifted their geopolitical alliances to the Eastern powers.
Currently Somalis are located in Somalia as well as in many neighboring countries such as Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Kenya.